Trends in colloid and interface science VII
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The influence of the counterions on the hydrodynamic size and the effective charge of poly styrene sulfonate has been investigated applying a combination of pulsed-field gradient PFG NMR and electrophoresis NMR. Electrophresis NMR yields the electrophoretic mobility and thus the effective charge of the macromolecule.
An increased ionic strength of the solution results in a more coiled conformation of the polyelectrolyte, an effect which is more pronounced for bivalent ions. If the dielectric constant of the solution is lowered, the effective charge is reduced as well.
Trends in Colloid and Interface Science XXIII (Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science)
The effect on the overall conformation strongly depends on the kind of the counterion. While a small effect is observed for the acid form, the most drastic effect is found for sodium as a counterion. These measurements were taken as functions of pH and ionic strength. When the ionic strength was changed from 0. When the pH was changed from 5. During this process the external liposome morphology remained the same, but new, smaller vesicles appeared within the interior of the liposomes.
Simultaneously changing the pH and the ionic strength to their final values 3. Our results suggest that the deformation of liposomes is not only driven by osmotic pressure but also the condensed states in each monolayers composing liposome membrane.
The nature and speciation of ions, and their affinities to mineral surfaces are well-known for aqueous solutions, and less well-known for mixed water-organic and nonaqueous solutions. Weak acids show strong preferential adsorption of anions on titania, and support a high negative surface charge on titania particles in organic solvents in spite of the very low degree of dissociation of these acids.
The interaction between solutions of weak acids in organic solvents and titania particles results in enhanced electrical conductance with respect to the original solutions in the absence of titania. This phenomenon is explained in terms of surface-induced electrolytic dissociation of weak acids. In mixed water-organic solvents the conductance behavior gradually shifts from water-like behavior titania depresses the conductance to opposite behavior titania enhances the conductance.
A quantitative model was proposed to explain the complex effect of the electrolyte and titania concentration on the conductance of the dispersion and zeta potential of the particles. Self-assembly is an important phenomenon that leads to formation of interesting and novel structures in colloidal dispersions.
In this structure, disc-like particles self-assemble as domains of a few parallel discs and the orientation tends to be orthogonal in adjacent domains. This phase has been predicted previously by computer simulations. The domains are approximately equiaxial and are predicted to exist only within a limited range of aspect ratios and volume fractions.
We have used the real space technique of cryo-transmission electron microscopy in our studies as this locally ordered structure could not be identified readily using scattering techniques, since the patterns are expected to be similar to those of isotropic liquid phases. It was observed that they form interconnected aggregates with a correspondingly increased viscosity.
Although the static structure of these systems does not depend to a larger extent on the number of hydrophobic stickers per polymer, the dynamic properties and in particular the rheological properties vary substantially with the number of arms. An increase of non-diffusive relaxation with increasing number of arms is observed by DLS and this complex dynamic behaviour is correlated to an increase of the elastic properties of the formed aggregate networks. An experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction of titanium dioxide particles during coagulation was performed, using laser light dynamic scattering LDS and both von Smoluchowski and reversible coagulation approaches.
For cluster formation, different initial particle numbers and different shear rates were investigated and the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model based on aggregation and disaggregation processes. The primary particle size was less than 1 micrometre, but in all cases the LDS information showed that primary clusters of 3. Hence, the modelling approach was one of cluster-cluster aggregation and disaggregation, rather than primary particle aggregation.
The self-assembled formation of PFDTS features on mono- and multilayered silica sphere arrays is studied. The multiscaled roughness induced by PFDTS nanostructures on multilayer arrays gives rise to superhydrophobic behaviour. In contrast to previous work, the role of PFDTS is two-fold: it lowers the surface energy and simultaneously provides the essential roughness to achieve superhydrophobicity. The importance of water in the formation of the nanostructured surfaces is discussed.
We present a simple bottom-up colloidal route towards the manufacture of hierarchical substrates. Owing to the double length scale roughness, these super-structure arrays exhibit superhydrophobic wetting behaviour, characterized by large contact angles, limited hysteresis and small sliding angles. The assembly procedure of the nanocolloidal silica and gold particles is reviewed, as well as the chemical treatments required to obtain stable, reproducible substrates.
Collagen films Atelocollagen from bovine Achilles tendon were prepared in tissue culture dishes and their surfaces were modified by using air and nitrogen plasma treatment. In addition, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line HaCaT was seeded on the treated and untreated films and cell proliferation was measured by using MTT assay test. The characterisation results confirmed physical and chemical changes on the collagen surface, such as increase in the extent of surface oxidation and surface roughness as well as, the treated samples showed better cell growth than untreated ones, and therefore this approach may be taken into account in the development of promising materials for tissue regeneration applications.
The palmitic acid C. The dependence of mixing behavior on the difference in the number of methylene group between components in monolayer is probably due to an enthalpic contribution based on the difference in cohesive energy between the monolayer components.
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Self-assembly of these complexes leads to the formation of viscoelastic interfacial adsorption layers characterized by a yield stress and elastic modules that provide stability of the emulsion films and emulsion systems. The above mentioned parameters evolve in time, though the formation of equilibrium interfacial layers proceeds during several hours; emulsion bilayer films require only several minutes. Instantaneous distribution of mass and thermal fluxes inside and outside of an evaporating sessile droplet is considered using computer simulations.
The latter distribution is calculated in a self consistent way by considering an interconnected problem of vapour transfer in the vapour phase outside the droplet; heat transfer in vapour, liquid and solid substrate; and Marangoni convection inside the liquid droplet.
The influence of thermal conductivity of the solid support on the evaporation process is evaluated. The deduced dependences of instantaneous fluxes can be applied for self-consistent calculations of time evolution of the evaporation processes of sessile droplets. It has been found that regardless of the surface energy of substrate the absorbance of trisiloxanes continuously increases during the experiment characteristic time scale is ten minutes , while the absorbance of alkyl polyethoxylate surfactants reaches equilibrium for tens of seconds on low hydrophobic and for a few minutes on the highly hydrophobic surfaces.
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The continuous growth of absorbance with increasing bulk concentration of surfactants has been detected in the case of trisiloxanes on both substrates even at concentrations above critical wetting concentration; while hydrocarbon surfactants attained the constant values of absorbance at concentrations above critical aggregation concentration. ChemNanoMat, vol. Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology , vol. Exploring the prebiotic effect of cyclodextrins on probiotic bacteria entrapped in carboxymetyl cellulose-chitosan particles.
Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. Cuomo, F. In-vitro digestion of curcumin loaded chitosan-coated liposomes.
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Medronho, B. Microrheology of novel cellulose stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. Alves, L. GELS, vol. On the rheology of mixed systems of hydrophobically modified polyacrylate microgels and surfactants : Role of the surfactant architecture. On the viability, cytotoxicity and stability of probiotic bacteria entrapped in cellulose-based particles. Lundberg, M. Validation of crill measurements in a high-yield pulp refining process for improved fines material control.
Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan hybrid micro- and macroparticles for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. Influences of the operational variables on electrochemical treatment of chelated Cu II in alkaline solutions using a membrane cell. One-pot synthesis of cellulose-templated copper nanoparticles with antibacterial properties.
Materials letters General ed. Lindman, B. The relevance of structural features of cellulose and its interactions to dissolution, regeneration, gelation and plasticization phenomena. Dissolution state of cellulose in aqueous systems. Alkaline solvents. Acidic solvents. Duan, R. Fibre stress-strain response of high temperature chemi-thermomechanical pulp treated with switchable ionic liquids.
Piltonen, P. Composites Science And Technology, vol. Svanedal, I. Langmuir, vol.
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- Trends in Colloid and Interface Science XIV | SpringerLink;
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Spherical nanocomposite particles prepared from mixed cellulose—chitosan solutions. Editorial : Cellulose dissolution and regeneration: systems and interactions. Afewerki, S. ACS Catalysis, vol.
Future challenges in colloid and interfacial science
Probing cellulose amphiphilicity. Release of small hydrophilic molecules from polyelectrolyte capsules : Effect of the wall thickness. Unusual extraction and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from cellulose derivatives. Zasadowski, D. Antisolvent precipitation of water-soluble hemicelluloses from TMP process water. Boija, S. Determination of conditional stability constants for some divalent transition metal ion-EDTA complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
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Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents and divalent metal ions. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. Holzforschung, vol. Ma, G.