Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science
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Language: English. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. How could such politics be practised? By the midth century iconic northern fisheries for cod, herring, salmon and plaice experienced major fluctuations causing ripples of anxiety among fisher communities, industries and governments of Europe and North America.
Around this time, in Dutch and later British controlled parts of India, fluctuations, uncertainty and unknowns in marine fisheries also bothered colonial era consumers, traders, administrators and scientists. Contemporary fisheries science in India bears several traces of these practices of ordering, naming, categorizing and measurement. Through archival research, internet searches, secondary data gathering and interviews, I was able to examine communication between government officials and scientists about such practices, for a period spanning the mids to the present.
Introduction to Fishery Sciences - AbeBooks
Fish and the marine space first had to be rendered in terms of property usually of the State before they could be subjected to any form of study. Conceptual aspects of fish abundance always had to factor in uncertainty or unknowns for both, fish and fishers. In order to obtain information about fisheries, scientists had to develop skills and practice of engaging with humans e. Ideas of abundance dramatically affect the practices of fishing — in intensity, scale, method and purpose.
Recreational fisheries in the UK: natural capital, ecosystem services, threats, and management
Science politics decisions, judgments and values in cultures of science can be unpacked to see how a truth however contestable is constructed, and hence holds promise for more democratic practice. Post-truth politics, on the other hand, suggests absolute immunity from even a pretence to truth. I hope that research like mine will make people march for sciences that are explicitly more political — one that is designed to make explicit how its own concepts and practices can lead to differential losses and gains for the future of fisheries.
In such situations, the common importance of the littoral zone as a fish spawning and nursery area [ 33 ] can be seriously undermined. Winfield et al. The industrial history of the UK brought with it substantial chemical pollution of many of its fresh waters and, as mentioned above, some of its estuaries. However, the adverse effects of freshwater acidification arising from airborne pollutants have now been reduced and sensitive fish species such as brown trout have consequently shown marked recoveries in many upland streams [ 35 ].
Similarly, larger rivers have responded to managed reductions in their chemical pollutant loads with notable results, including that of the River Thames as it flows through lowland England [ 36 ] and to which Atlantic salmon have now returned [ 37 ]. Eutrophication has also been a pervasive problem in the UK, particularly in its lowland rivers and lakes where nutrient sources from agriculture and sewage in particular have been a significant factor for many decades.
As reviewed from a global perspective by Winfield [ 38 ], the effects on fish populations of such nutrient enrichment may initially be positive through increased production, but in most systems they quickly become negative through deoxygenation, increased sedimentation and shifts in competitive relationships within the fish community.
In the UK, this can result in the reduction of highly valued but sensitive salmonid populations such as Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus e. Jones et al. Winfield [ 40 ]. However, the fundamental mechanisms and management of eutrophication have now been understood for many years e.
Smith et al.
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A notable example of such success is provided by Loch Leven in Scotland, where a renowned recreational fishery for brown trout is benefitting from a reduction in local eutrophication Winfield et al. Although the above environmental threats are now well understood and are generally being well managed, a number of new and emerging problems have arisen in more recent years.
Moreover, it is becoming increasingly apparent that many of these new issues and more established threats can interact with each other. The physiological impacts of endocrine disruptors on fish in the laboratory and their qualitative presence in the wild have been appreciated for some years e.
Tyler et al. However, it is only more recently that their effects at the population level in the natural environment have begun to be explored quantitatively through modelling e. Brown et al. Crane et al. The physico-chemical effects of nanoparticles on fish populations and their environments are similarly at a relatively early stage of understanding and management [ 46 ].
The isolated nature of its fresh waters in combination with the eradicating effects of the last glaciation have left the UK particularly susceptible to problems arising from the accidental or intentional introduction of aquatic species. Such problems have been appreciated for some time e. Winfield [ 40 ] , but with increased transport infrastructure and a warming environment see below they have increased substantially in recent years in line with the common global pattern [ 47 ].
Non-native fish species have now been introduced to the largest lakes of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales [ 48 ] and the problem is particularly acute for species-poor lakes towards the north and west of the UK [ 49 ]. Biosecurity procedures addressing the threat of species introductions are now well developed throughout the UK, although recent research has shown that the practices of some user groups must still be further improved [ 50 ].
Although not strictly an issue of species introduction, the movement of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo onto fresh waters with potential impacts on local fish populations has been appreciated for some time e. Kirby et al. Finally, climate change has the potential to have immense impacts on the marine and freshwater recreational fisheries of the UK. For example, in the North Sea many fish species have shown changes in their spatial distributions attributable to recent increases in sea temperature [ 29 , 53 ].
The scope for similar large-scale changes in distribution is of course much more limited in isolated freshwater environments, but instead similar changes are being observed in lakes across Europe such that coldwater salmonids are declining and warmwater cyprinids increasing in abundance [ 54 ]. Within the UK, the coldwater Arctic charr is showing a widespread decline which appears to be attributable at least in part to climate change [ 55 ].
Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science
The growth represented by the number of member Rivers Trusts of the Rivers Trust in England and Wales since the start of the movement in One problem that is proving to be particularly resilient to effective management is that of fish species introductions. The removal of introduced populations is extremely difficult in most rivers and lakes, although some success has been achieved in England in smaller standing waters from which the invasive cyprinid topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has been successfully removed by the controlled use of rotenone [ 59 , 60 ].
Nevertheless, the best management option is undoubtedly to prevent undesirable introductions from being made in the first place, and to this end all fish introductions to the UK are now subjected to sophisticated risk analyses [ 61 ]. However, many undesirable fish arrivals within the UK have arisen not from ill-informed formal introduction programmes, but from the unauthorised activities of some anglers. In particular, strong circumstantial evidence indicates that the use of live freshwater fish species as bait for larger, predatory species such as pike Esox lucius is the source of many of these introductions.
Consequently, regulatory bodies are pursuing a twin approach of angler education and the banning of such live-baiting in particularly sensitive areas [ 62 , 63 ]. Annual maximum number of cormorants recorded at the reservoir of Haweswater in north-west England between and , at the start of which period they had a significant negative impact on a local endangered whitefish population. Although escalating cormorant control measures were limited to between and indicated by a double-headed arrow , continued cormorant monitoring has shown that a resulting reduction in abundance has persisted to the present.
Note that no cormorant counts were made between and See main text for further details. In an even wider environmental context, the ecosystem-based management of fisheries that had its origins in the marine environment e. Pikitch et al. Cowx and Gerdeaux [ 67 ] , and this holistic approach now pervades the management of recreational fisheries in the UK. For example, the successful management of the environment of the Loch Leven brown trout fishery mentioned above [ 42 ] has been conducted within an ecosystem-based approach for which May and Spears [ 68 ] provide a discussion within the context of potentially competing ecosystem services.
Just as the ecological management of water bodies has broadened over recent decades to include their terrestrial catchments, the management of recreational fisheries in the UK has more recently expanded above and away from the water to include the management of anglers and other members of society. A major driver behind this expansion has been the realisation that the success of recreational fisheries is often, and arguably, usually driven more by human factors above the water than by fish factors within it.