Introduction to Nano: Basics to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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University of Queensland Library. Open to the public ; Online: Not available for loan Book; Illustrated English Show 0 more libraries None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. These online bookshops told us they have this item:. Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. The size-specific properties of nanomaterials, such as their thermal, mechanical, optical and magnetic characteristics, are discussed in detail.
The book goes on to illustrate the various applications of nanomaterials in electronics, optoelectronics, cosmetics, energy, textiles and the medical field and discusses the environmental impact of these technologies. Presents scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for applications in three areas that are expected to lead to impacts on human health: biomedical pharmaceuticals and medical devices , agrifood and water, and environment.
Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications.
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An example of a nanomachine, this nanotechnology "bike chain" and gear system was developed by scientists at Sandia National Laboratories. The distance between each link of the chain is fractionally smaller than the width of a typical human hair. Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories. It turns out there is a way to do it.
Some molecules are regularly shaped and symmetrical so they have no overall positive or negative charges. Other molecules are not symmetrical, which means they have slightly more positive charge at one end and slightly more negative charge at the other. These are called polar molecules and water is the best known example. Water sticks to a lot of things and cleans them well because it has a positive "pole" at one end and a negative pole at the other. We can use this idea to make a molecular machine.
Artwork: A simple "nano-escalator. Suppose you take a molecule made from a ring of atoms that has a slightly positive charge in one place. Now thread it over another molecule made from a rod of atoms, which has slightly negative charges at its two ends. The positive ring will pull toward one of the negative charges so the ring will lift upward. Now add some energy and you can make the ring move back down, toward the other negative charge. In this way, you can make the ring shunt back and forth or up and down, a bit like a nanoscopic elevator! By extending this idea, we can gradually make more complex machines with parts that shuffle back and forth, move around one another, or even rotate like tiny electric motors.
Ingenious ideas like this were developed by three brilliant scientists who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in more about that below.
Richard Feynman, Popular Science , Oct Natural examples like this tell us that nanotechnology is as old as life itself, but the concept of the nanoscale, nanoscience we can study, and nanotechnology we can harness are all relatively new developments. The brilliant American physicist Richard Feynman — is widely credited with kick-starting modern interest in nanotechnology.
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In , in a famous after-dinner speech called "There's plenty of room at the bottom," the ever-imaginative Feynman speculated about an incredibly tiny world where people could use tiny tools to rearrange atoms and molecules. By , Japanese engineering professor Norio Taniguchi had named this field "nanotechnology. Photo: Creatures of the nanoworld? This is what a single molecule of the semiconductor material cadmium sulfide looks like. Nanoparticles like this could be used to make improved electronic displays and lasers.
Nanotechnology really took off in the s.
That was when nanotech-evangelist Dr K. It was also the decade when microscopes appeared that were capable of manipulating atoms and molecules on the nanoscale. In , carbon nanotubes were discovered by another Japanese scientist, Sumio Iijima, opening up huge interest in new engineering applications. The graphite in pencils is a soft form of carbon.
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Stunts like this captured the public imagination, but they also led to nanotechnology being recognized and taken seriously at the highest political levels. In , President Bill Clinton sealed the importance of nanotechnology when he launched a major US government program called the National Nanotechnology Initiative NNI , designed to fund groundbreaking research and inspire public interest.
Fraser Stoddart, and Bernard Feringa, three scientists whose groundbreaking work had spawned the idea of turning molecules into machines. Engineers the world over are raving about nanotechnology. This is what scientists at one of America's premier research institutions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have to say: "The new concepts of nanotechnology are so broad and pervasive, that they will influence every area of technology and science, in ways that are surely unpredictable The total societal impact of nanotechnology is expected to be greater than the combined influences that the silicon integrated circuit , medical imaging, computer-aided engineering, and man-made polymers have had in this century.
Photo: These nanogears were made by attaching benzene molecules outer white blobs to the outsides of carbon nanotubes inner gray rings.
Nanotechnology sounds like a world of great promise, but there are controversial issues too that must be considered and resolved. Some people have raised concerns that nanoscale organisms or machines could harm human life or the environment. One problem is that tiny particles can be extremely toxic to the human body. No-one really knows what harmful effect new nanomaterials or substances could have.
Chemical pesticides were not considered harmful when they were first used in the early decades of the 20th century; it wasn't until the s and s that their potentially harmful effects were properly understood. Could the same happen with nanotechnology? The ultimate nano-nightmare, the problem of "gray goo," was first highlighted by Eric Drexler. What happens if well-meaning humans create nanobots that run riot through the biosphere, gobbling up all living things and leaving behind nothing but a chewed-up mass of "gray goo"?
Drexler later backed away from that claim. But critics of nanotechnology still argue humans shouldn't meddle with worlds they don't understand, but if we took that argument to its logical conclusion, we'd have no inventions at all—no medicines, no transportation, no agriculture, and no education—and we'd still be living in the Stone Age. The real question is whether the promise of nanotechnology is greater than any potential risks that go with it. And that will determine whether our nano-future becomes dream—or nightmare.
Girl 1. Man 2m 6. From nanoscience to nanotechnology This is all very interesting and quite impressive, but what use is it? What's so good about the nanoscale? How do you work on the nanoscale? What can we use nanotechnology for? Nanomaterials It could be you're already using nanotechnology. Nanochips One form of nanotechnology we all use is microelectronics.