Environmental Effects on Engineered Materials
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The results are shown in Table 1. As evident from the collection of studies that were retrieved for each given nanomaterial, most research has focused on the synthesis and general development of a nanomaterial for a specific application. These ENMs have important medical applications such as cancer therapeutics, contrast agents, diagnostics and vaccination. Also substantial research has been conducted for nanoscaled zeolites, diamond, aluminium oxide, iron and iron oxide, and titanium dioxide, which have promising applications in the environmental sector, or as in the case of titanium dioxide, its application in sunscreens implies potentially high release into the environment,.
Interestingly, the most researched nanomaterials with regard to environmental safety include nanosilver, nanozinc and nanocopper, probably because they are used in many applications due to their antiseptic actions, which also implies the release of ions into the environment. The number of publications is informative, because the publications were not filtered any further and may contain accidental hits.
Materials are listed alphabetically. This rather simple evaluation of current nanotechnology related literature reveals discrepancies in the assessment of the safety of selected nanomaterials.
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In particular, current research on environmental safety tends to focus on whether applications have relevance in the environmental sector rather than assessment of actual release and distribution in different environmental settings. Most of the currently available data on this issue relies on modelling approaches e. Detection and quantification of ENMs in complex environmental samples are particularly challenging [ 13 , 14 ]. The DaNa project team tries to evaluate this body of literature, in particular, the reliability of these studies.
Toxicity studies involving nanomaterials require specifically adopted test procedures and need to consider a number of particle-specific issues due to the unique properties and behavior of ENMs [ 15 , 16 ]. Still, not all studies use appropriate methodology when testing ENMs, leading to inaccurate or irreproducible results for these nano eco toxicity studies. In order to provide a reliable foundation for the DaNa knowledge base, the DaNa project team developed the DaNa criteria checklist [ 17 ] to evaluate the quality of studies related to nanosafety and select appropriate studies.
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Additionally, the checklist may also be used to prepare and design studies in the field of nano eco toxicity and it is also feasible for evaluating the validity of no-effect studies. In these types of studies, judging whether the absence of biological effects is due to non-toxicity of the test item or to experimental error is particularly challenging. For example, this may involve using ENM concentrations close to realistic or predicted environmental concentrations. We hope that our brief literature review provides some inspiration to steer research into the impact of ENMs on the environment in a more appropriate direction.
As discussed, there are specific data gaps in the area of environmental risk assessment. In order to improve the evaluation of the environmental risks of ENMs, we recommend generating more data of high quality and reliability on the actual environmental release and fate of ENMs. Furthermore, we consider it important to foster the publication of ecotoxicity studies that report on the non-toxicity of ENMs as reliable studies on this issue represent important building blocks for improved risk assessment.
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Finally, to add to the ever-growing knowledge base in general, and subsequently to the DaNa knowledge base, in this special issue we aimed at providing a platform for more detailed research into the environmental effects of ENM. We, the guest editor team, hope that this Special Issue of Materials is of interest to the scientific community and facilitates further discussion on the environmental fate and safety of ENMs.
Environmental Effects on Engineered Materials / Edition 1
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Materials Basel v. Materials Basel. Published online Aug Krug , 2 and Anita Jemec Kokalj 3. Harald F. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 3; Accepted Aug Keywords: engineered nanomaterials ENMs , environmental release, environmental fate, ecotoxicity, nanosafety, DaNa project. Open in a separate window. Funding The DaNa2. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
References 1. Vance M. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory. Beilstein J. Nanotechnologies—Consumer Products Inventory. Gottschalk F. The release of engineered nanomaterials to the environment. Adeleye A. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability.
Jones, C. Henager, Jr. Lewinsohn, and Charles F. Windisch, Jr. Stephen M. Mike J. Henry Holroyd erside, California. Nathan S. Lewinsohn Washington. This chapter addresses the corrosion behavior of ferrous alloys, specifically ferritic and martensitic irons and steels. The reason for this designation is to distinguish these alloys from the austenitic alloys that will be discussed in a later chapter. However, the use of the terms ferritic or martensitic is not intended to exclude pearlitic or bainitic microstructures, but is only intended as a convenience.
Therefore, the discussion in this chapter addresses all low-alloy ferrous materials and ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.
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The largest group of ferrous alloys are steels which will be the emphasis in this chapter, however, cast irons, several of which can be quite corrosion resistant, will also be mentioned. There are tens of thousands of different steels in the world; however, they are usually referred to in groups as a function of their chemical composition. Thus, carbon steels also referred to as mild steels contain little or no alloy elements beyond the Mn, P, S, Si, and Al needed to produce a good quality structural material.
The low-alloy steels are the next group that can be characterized by small additions of Cr, Mo, and Ni, usually in the range of about 0. Higher additions of these elements form a group of steels referred to as alloy steels. The distinction between low-alloy and alloy steels is not well defined nor even well observed in practice. Often, all of these steels are lumped together under the term low-alloy steel or alloy steel.
As will be seen in this chapter, 1. In a similar vein, cast irons are used as structural or pressure-containing alloys that have little natural corrosion resistance. Additions of Cr, Ni, and Si are most often the primary means for improving corrosion resistance. Unquestionably the most important alloying element in steels and irons from a corrosion standpoint is Cr.
In this chapter, the ferritic and martensitic stainless steels will also be discussed.
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Although the number of alloys that are covered by the categories just presented are myriad, the general performance is relatively easy to address. The corrosion performance of these ferrous alloys is of major importance not only because they represent the largest tonnage of metals used by the world but because they represent the benchmark from which corrosion performance of other alloys is compared.
General Corrosion Carbon and low-alloy steels generally display active corrosion in the majority of environments to which they are exposed. This means they will corrode unabated at some corrosion rate determined by factors such as solution composition, pH, fluid velocity, presence of oxidizers, temperature, and so forth. In many of the environments to which ferrous alloys are exposed, there is little effect or benefit of minor alloying element additions.